Injectable steroids are injected into muscle tissue, not into the veins. They are slowly released from the muscles into the rest of the body, and may be detectable for months after last use. Injectable steroids can be oil-based or water-based. Injectable anabolic steroids which are oil-based have longer half-life than water-based steroids. Both steroid types have much longer half-lives than oral anabolic steroids. And this is proving to be a drawback for injectables as they have high probability of being detected in drug screening since their clearance times tend to be longer than orals. Athletes resolve this problem by using injectable testosterone early in the cycle then switch to orals when approaching the end of the cycle and drug testing is imminent.
He has over 650 peer reviewed and 195 non-peer reviewed publications. He has published over 300 book chapters and is the editor of over 54 textbooks and co-editor of OKU-Spine I and editor of OKU-8. Dr. Vaccaro also serves as Co-Director of the Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center of the Delaware Valley and Co-Director of Spine Surgery and the Spine Fellowship program at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, where he instructs current fellows and residents in the diagnosis and treatment of various spinal problems and disorders.