Adverse effects of testosterone supplementation may include increased cardiovascular events (including strokes and heart attacks ) and deaths based on three peer-reviewed studies involving men taking testosterone replacement.  In addition, an increase of 30% in deaths and heart attacks in older men has been reported.  Due to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events compared to a placebo group , a Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations (TOM) trial (a National Institute of Aging randomized trial) was halted early by the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee .  On January 31, 2014, reports of strokes , heart attacks , and deaths in men taking FDA-approved testosterone-replacement led the FDA to announce that it would be investigating the issue.  Later, in September 2014, the FDA announced, as a result of the "potential for adverse cardiovascular outcomes", a review of the appropriateness and safety of Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT).    The FDA now requires warnings in the drug labeling of all approved testosterone products regarding deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism . 
The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".   Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.  The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.  Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.     
Dementia and Alzheimer's disease describes a gradual loss of cognition and intellectual ability including language, attention, memory, and problem solving is an otherwise healthy person. The cause is unknown and there is no cure. Recommendations to decrease the risk of dementia include avoiding smoking, and keeping blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes under control. Physical and mental fitness may help prevent dementia; keeping socially active may also help. Recurrent head injuries are associated with dementia. Alzheimer's disease and dementia are not direct causes of death, but they make it more difficult to identify and treat complications that can lead to death.