Hormones and testosterone

Researchers often investigate the effects of hormones on behavior in laboratory experiments with student subjects. Some studies show that when you give people oxytocin they become more generous and trusting . In others that administer testosterone to men, the opposite happens . The strength of such studies is that they can demonstrate cause and effect - the behavior change only occurs in subjects receiving hormones, not in those who get a placebo. But this research has weaknesses as well: it often focuses on single hormones, ignoring their potential interactions, and behavior is measured with highly artificial tasks.

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

Sara Gottfried, MD is the New York Times bestselling author of the new book, Younger: A Breakthrough Program to Reset Your Genes, Reverse Aging, and Turn Back the Clock 10 Years . Her previous  New York Times  bestsellers are The Hormone Cure  and The Hormone Reset Diet . After graduating from Harvard Medical School and MIT, Dr. Gottfried completed her residency at the University of California at San Francisco. She is a board-certified gynecologist who teaches natural hormone balancing in her novel online programs so that women can lose weight, detoxify, and slow down aging. Dr. Gottfried lives in Berkeley, CA with her husband and two daughters.

It has been suggested that oestrogen and progestogen levels in premenopausal women protect them from OSA, and that females after the menopause are at greater risk. Interestingly in premenopausal females with OSA, menstrual irregularities are common. This feature is seen in women who are of normal weight as well as in obese subjects. Several studies have shown higher levels of androgen (male hormone) in females with OSA, but care is needed in the interpretation of the results as obese females have higher androgen levels than non-obese patients.

Hormones and testosterone

hormones and testosterone

It has been suggested that oestrogen and progestogen levels in premenopausal women protect them from OSA, and that females after the menopause are at greater risk. Interestingly in premenopausal females with OSA, menstrual irregularities are common. This feature is seen in women who are of normal weight as well as in obese subjects. Several studies have shown higher levels of androgen (male hormone) in females with OSA, but care is needed in the interpretation of the results as obese females have higher androgen levels than non-obese patients.

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